My research program addresses language and reading processes, from word processing through comprehension, studied in English and comparatively across languages. The research includes cognitive (behavioral) studies, ERPs, EEGs, and collaborative research in fMRI and MEG. The general goal is to achieve a richer view of language processes by the combination of methods. Projects include 1) Text comprehension studied with ERPs to expose readers word-to-text integration processes. 2a) Universal and writing-system specific components of reading. Comparisons across languages and writing systems expose what is general and specific in reading; 2b) Learning to read a second language in a new writing system. 3) New word learning, especially the processes by which the meanings of new words become integrated into the mental lexicon.