Papers for the month of February 2015

Galván E.J., Pérez-Rosello T., Gómez-Lira G., Lara E., Gutiérrez R

"Synapse-specific compartmentalization of signaling cascades for LTP induction in CA3 interneurons"
Neuroscience, 290:332-345

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The aspiny dendrites of hippocampal area CA3 interneurons compartmentalize the initial steps in the signaling transduction cascades implicated in the induction of Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at recurrent collateral (RC) and mossy fiber (MF) synapses predominantly containing CI-AMPARs. Both forms of synaptic plasticity were prevented by postsynaptic injections of the calcium chelator BAPTA. However, RC LTP depends on calcium influx via the NMDARs whereas MF LTP requires cytosolic calcium increase from the coactivation of L-type VGCCs and mGluR1. Despite the absence of dendritic spines, CA3 interneurons have the capability to spatially restrict the signaling calcium cascades that lead to two mechanistically distinct forms of Hebbian LTP.

Glazewski, S.

"Stimulus intensity determines experience-dependent modifications in neocortical neuron firing rates. "
European Journal of Neuroscience, 41(4):410-9

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Neocortical neurons can represent stimulus intensity, where weak stimuli drive few spikes compared to strong stimuli in somatosensory cortex. We found that after a short period of selective whisker stimulation, neocortical neurons showed a highly significant response potentiation to weak, but not strong, whisker stimulation. These data predict that perceptual sensitivity can be selectively enhanced during experience-dependent plasticity.

Ossowski, A.

"Left hemisphere specialization for word reading potentially causes, rather than results from, a left lateralized bias for high spatial frequency visual information."
Cortex, 14:2014.12.013.

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.There is considerable evidence showing that efficient visual word recognition relies on high spatial frequency (HSF) visual coding in the left posterior fusiform gyrus. But whether the bias for HSF in the left hemisphere (LH) causally contributes to the LH superiority for word recognition or possibly results from it remains unknown. To assess whether the lateralization for HSF information exists prior to the left lateralization for reading, we used a divided-visual field task to examine the LH bias for orthographic processing and for HSF Gabor patches in young children (mean age 4.5 years) with variable letter knowledge, and in adults. If LH specialization for orthographic processing results from a pre-existing HSF bias in the LH, then LH specialization for HSF information should be evident even in those young children with minimal, if any, letter knowledge. The adult participants showed the predicted LH lateralization for both HSF information and word recognition. Neither of these hemispheric biases, however, was statistically significant in the group of young children. Further investigation, however, revealed a correlation between these biases such that those children with the somewhat more developed LH advantage for orthographic representations also evinced an LH bias for HSF information. These findings suggest that, rather than serving as a precursor for the LH superiority for word recognition, the LH bias for HSF input might emerge in concert with it or potentially even be a consequence of the acquisition of orthographic competence.

Kancherla S

"Long-term effects of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on structural and physiological integrity of the eye and visual pathway by multimodal MRI"
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56:1-9

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.High-field, multimodal MRI demonstrated in vivo the long-term structural and physiological deficits in the eye and brain's visual pathways after unilateral neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. The remaining retinocollicular and retinogeniculate pathways appeared to be more vulnerable to anterograde degeneration from eye injury than retrograde, transsynaptic degeneration from visual cortex injury.

Heitmann, Stewart

"Synchrony, waves and ripple in spatially coupled Kuramoto oscillators with Mexican hat connectivity"
Biological Cybernetics, 109:1-15

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Spatiotemporal patterns of synchronized neural activity are thought to be governed by the lateral inhibitory coupling within neural tissue. We use numerical simulation and mathematical analysis to study how such spatiotemporal patterns respond to dynamic changes in lateral coupling strength. It is found that some spatial synchronization patterns can remain structurally stable despite substantial changes in network connectivity.

Mason, R.

"Physics instruction induces changes in neural knowledge representation during successive stages of learning"
NeuroImage, 111 (2015):36–48

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Incremental instruction on the workings of a set of mechanical systems induced a progression of changes in the neural representations of the systems. The progression of representational states was: (1) encoding information from the display; (2) mental animation, possibly involving imagining the components moving; (3) generating causal hypotheses associated with mental animation; and finally (4) determining how a person (probably oneself) would interact with the system.

Manuel, S., Peshkin, M., Colgate, J. E.

"A coincidence-avoidance principle in surface haptic interpretation"
Proc. Natl. Acad. Science, 112:2605

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.A force feedback device was used to display forces to two fingertips as they moved collinearly. The force patterns on each finger were constructed to produce illusory virtual bumps. Results suggests that the brain selects interpretations of touch sensations that rely on the fewest coincidental alignments between the fingertips and environmental features.

Simon, NW

"Neural processing of reward in adolescent rodents"
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 11:145-54

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This review highlights substantial differences in reward processing between adolescents and adults. Understanding of functional brain development is necessary to understand why adolescents demonstrate maladaptive decision-making, and this mechanistic information can facilitate intervention and treatment of mental illnesses that first manifest during adolescence.

Wei W., Wang X.-J.

"Role of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia in decision making"
The Journal of Neuroscience, 35:4052

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. Our results show that the making of a decision occurs when indirect pathway activity can no longer balance direct pathway projections to output nuclei. We also consider alterations to this process under beta oscillations associated with parkinsonism.

Kostanyan T, Wollstein G,

"New Developments in optical coherence tomography"
Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 2:110-5

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The innovative iterations of OCT technology have the potential to further improve the performance of the technology in evaluating ocular structural and functional characteristics and longitudinal changes in glaucoma.

Eddington, C. M.

"How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: the current state of the literature"
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22:13-37

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The majority of words in the English language do not correspond to a single meaning, but rather correspond to two or more unrelated meanings (i.e., are homonyms) or multiple related senses (i.e., are polysemes). It has been proposed that the different types of "semantically-ambiguous words" (i.e., words with more than one meaning) are processed and represented differently in the human mind.

Jarbo, Kevin

"“Converging structural and functional connectivity of orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal cortex in the human striatum”"
Journal of Neuroscience, 35:3865-3878

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We identify both structural and functional connections from parietal, prefrontal, and orbitofrontal regions that overlap in a common region of the dorsomedial striatum. These results allude to an involvement of this part of the striatum in spatial reinforcement learning.


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