Papers for the month of June 2015


Ho, Leon C., Wang, Bo, Conner, Ian P., van der Merwe, Yolandi, Bilonick, Richard A., Kim, Seong-Gi; Wu, Ed X., Sigal, Ian A., Wollstein, Gadi, Schuman, Joel S.

"In Vivo Evaluation of White Matter Integrity and Anterograde Transport in Visual System After Excitotoxic Retinal Injury With Multimodal MRI and OCT"
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56:3788-3800

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Diffusion tensor MRI, manganese-enhanced MRI, and OCT provided an in vivo model system for characterizing the spatiotemporal changes in white matter integrity, the eye–brain relationships and structural–physiological relationships in the visual system after ERI.


Zhang, Y.

"Recasting brain-machine interface design from a physical control system perspective"
Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 159:1-12

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Brain-machine interfaces provide direct neural control of prosthetic devices by translating neural signals into control signals. Over the past two decades, much attention has been devoted to the decoding problem: how should recorded neural activity be translated into the movement of the cursor? Most approaches have focused on this problem from an estimation standpoint, i.e., decoders are designed to return the best estimate of motor intent possible, under various sets of assumptions about how the recorded neural signals represent motor intent. Here we recast the decoder design problem from a physical control system perspective, and investigate how various classes of decoders lead to different types of physical systems for the subject to control. This framework leads to new interpretations of why certain types of decoders have been shown to perform better than others, and lend insight into the brain’s ability to conceptualize artificial systems.


Kingdom, F.A.A.

"The Uses of Colour Vision"
Minds and Machines, 10.1007/s11023-015-9364-z:xx

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.What is colour vision for? In the popular imagination colour vision is for ‘‘seeing the colours’’ — adding hue to the achromatic world of shape, depth and motion. On this view colour vision plays little more than an ornamental role, lending glamour to an otherwise monochrome world. This idea has guided much theorising about colour within vision science and philosophy. However, we argue that a broader approach is needed. Recent research in the psychology of colour demonstrates that colour vision is integral to a variety of visual processes, helping us to perform many types of visual tasks. We discuss some of this research and consider its implications for philosophical theories of colour.


Gabay, Y., Thiessen, E. D.

"Impaired statistical learning in developmental dyslexia"
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58:934-945

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes. As with control participants, the DD group was sensitive to the transitional probability structure of the familiarization materials as evidenced by above-chance performance. However, the performance of participants with DD was significantly poorer than controls across linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. In addition, reading-related measures were significantly correlated with statistical learning performance.


"Comparative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histopathological Correlates in Two SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis."
PLOS One, 10:e0132159

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal disease due to motoneuron degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming a promising non-invasive approach to monitor the disease course but a direct correlation with neuropathology is not feasible in human. Therefore in this study we aimed to examine MRI changes in relation to histopathology in two mouse models of ALS (C57BL6/J and 129S2/SvHsd SOD1G93A mice) with different disease onset and progression.Eventually this approach has the potential to lead to the development of robust and validated non-invasive imaging biomarkers in ALS patients, which may help to monitor the efficacy of therapies.


Kim, Y.B., Simon, N.W., Wood, J.

"Reward Anticipation Is Encoded Differently by Adolescent Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons"
Biological Psychiatry, NA:NA

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In this study, we find critical differences between adolescents and adults in the neural encoding of reward-related events in dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Our findings question current dogmas related to dopamine and reward in adolescents, and provide insight into mechanisms that lead to psychiatric vulnerabilities during this developmental period.


Huppert, T., Luna, B.

"Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Evidence for Development of Prefrontal Engagement in Working Memory in Early Through Middle Childhood"
Cerebral Cortex, 2015:1-10

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper examined the neurodevelopment of working memory in the lateral prefrontal cortex in children ages 3-7.


Liu X., Keinath A., Popov., V

"Building knowledge requires bricks, not sand: The critical role of familiar constituents in learning"
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1:1-7

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This report demonstrates that it is easier to learn new facts that are composed of more familiar elements and that this is because less familiar stimuli consume more working memory resources.


Rudolph, Erica D., Ells, Emma M.L., Campbell, Debra J., Abriel, Shelagh C., Tibbo, Phillip G., and Fisher, Derek J. .

"Finding the missing-stimulus mismatch negativity (MMN) in early psychosis: Altered MMN to violations of an auditory gestalt"
Schizophrenia Research, online epub:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Here we show that recent onset schizophrenia patients display impairments in generating the mismatch negativity brainwave to violations of a perceptual group. This abnormal neurophysiological signal indicates basic perceptual abnormalities very early in disease course.


Faraji, A. H., Abhinav, K., Jarbo, K., Yeh, F.-C., Shin, S. S., Pathak, S., Hirsch, B. E., Fernandez-Miranda, J. C., Friedlander, R. M.

"Longitudinal evaluation of corticospinal tract in patients with resected brainstem cavernous malformations using high-definition fiber tractography and diffusion connectometry analysis: preliminary experience"
Journal of Neurosurgery, 00:00

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are challenging due to a higher symptomatic hemorrhage rate and potential morbidity associated with their resection. The extent of involvement of the CST was further evaluated longitudinally using the automated “diffusion connectometry” analysis.


Snyder, Adam C.

"Stimulus-dependent spiking relationships with the EEG"
Journal of Neurophysiology, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We hypothesized that individual neurons have idiosyncratic relationships to large-scale network activity indexed by EEG signals, owing to the distinct computational roles of the neurons within the local circuitry. We tested this by recording neuronal populations in visual area V4 while we simultaneously recorded EEG. We found substantial heterogeneity in the timing and strength of spike-EEG relationships, and that these relationships became more diverse during visual stimulation compared to the spontaneous state.


Aminoff, E.

"Associative Processing Is Inherent in Scene Perception"
PLoS ONE, 10:e0128840

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The mechanism by which scenes are perceived, recognized, and understood, is through means of processing the associations elicited from components of the scene. Here we investigated, using fMRI, whether different types of relations, all falling under the heading of associative processing, reliably recruit specific components of the network of brain regions known to be scene selective.

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