Papers for the month of July 2015


Nautiyal KM, Tanaka KF, Barr MM, Tritschler L, Le Dantec Y, David DJ, Gardier AM, Blanco C, Hen R

"Distinct Circuits Underlie the Effects of 5-HT1B Receptors on Aggression and Impulsivity."
Neuron, 86:813-26

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Using novel transgenic technology, we found that adolescent expression of serotonin-1B receptors influences the development of aggressive behavior, while a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood. This helps to dissociate the classically linked behavioral constructs of aggression and impulsivity on a molecular and circuit level.


Spellman T, Rigotti M, Ahmari SE, Fusi S, Gogos JA, Gordon JA

"Hippocampal-prefrontal input supports spatial encoding in working memory."
Nature, 522:309-314

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We found that direct hippocampal–prefrontal afferents are critical for encoding, but not for maintenance or retrieval, of spatial cues in mice, and that successful encoding of these cues appears to be mediated by gamma-frequency synchrony between the two structures. These findings indicate a critical role for the direct hippocampal–prefrontal afferent pathway in the continuous updating of task-related spatial information during spatial working memory.


Navlakha, Saket and Bar-Joseph, Ziv

"Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks"
PLoS Computational Biology, 2015 Jul 28;11(7):e1004347

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.What is the best way to build a robust, efficient, and low-cost network? Here we use lessons from neural circuit construction to evaluate strategies for engineering optimal networks. We show that networks established by overconnection and then pruning are vastly superior than growth-based models. In addition, we show that the neocortex employs decreasing rates of connection pruning, and that this itself can further enhance the performance of engineered networks.


Plaut, D. C.

"A vision of graded hemispheric specialization."
Ann N Y Acad Sci., doi: 10.1111/nyas.12833.:12833

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.http://Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization.


Cecala, AL, Smalianchuk I., Khanna SB, Smith MA

"Context cue-dependent saccadic adaptation in rhesus macaques cannot be elicited using color"
Journal of Neurophysiology, 114:570-84

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper shows that context specific saccade adaptation cannot be evoked using stimulus color as the informative cue.


Willard, A.M., Bouchard, R.S.

"Differential degradation of motor deficits during gradual dopamine depletion with 6-hydroxydopamine in mice"
Neuroscience, 301:254-67

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper highlights dissociable rates of behavioral impairment for different types of motor tasks seen in a new experimental platform for studying prodromal Parkinson’s disease through gradual and bilateral depletion of dopamine in mice using 6-OHDA. Differences in behavioral performance at end-stage dopamine depletions in gradually vs acutely depleted mice may represent compensation during the slow depletion paradigm and stresses the importance of using progressive depletion paradigms when studying Parkinson’s disease.


Scott, J., Kelly, R., Smith, M., Zhou, P.

"False Discovery Rate Regression: An Application to Neural Synchrony Detection in Primary Visual Cortex"
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 110:459

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper solves the statistical problem of multiple comparison adjustment when there are large numbers of significance tests and there is information available that pertains to the likelihood of significance of any particular test. The methodology is applied to testing for excess spike synchrony (above chance, based on fluctuating firing rates as seen in the PSTH) among more than 8,000 pairs of neurons in primary visual cortex; in this case, the probability that a particular pair genuinely exhibits excess synchrony depends on both the distance between the two neurons and their tuning curve correlation.


Woods, A., Lehet, M., Chatterjee, A.

"Expertise and Decision-making in American Football"
Frontiers in Psychology, 6:994:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. Data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.


Marek S., Larsen B., Tervo-Clemens B., Chahal R.

"An Integrative Model of the Maturation of Cognitive Control"
Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38:151-170

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We integrate literature from cellular, circuit, and systems levels of analyses to propose a novel model of the brain basis of the development of cognitive control. This model provides a novel understanding of the adolescent period as an adaptive period of heightened experience-seeking necessary for the specialization of brain systems supporting cognitive control.


Kim, Y.B., Simon, N.W., Wood, J.

"Reward Anticipation Is Encoded Differently by Adolescent Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons"
Biological Psychiatry, NA:NA

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In this study, we find critical differences between adolescents and adults in the neural encoding of reward-related events in dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Our findings question current dogmas related to dopamine and reward in adolescents, and provide insight into mechanisms that lead to psychiatric vulnerabilities during this developmental period.


Jones, B.M., Wakschlag, L.S., Axelson, D., Birmaher, B., Phillips, M.L.

"Neural substrates of child irritability in typically developing and psychiatric populations"
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 14:71-80

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.fMRI was used to investigate the neural underpinnings of frustration in children with clinically high levels of irritability.


Snyder, Abigail C.

"Conditions for Multi-functionality in a Rhythm Generating Network Inspired by Turtle Scratching"
Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience, 5:15

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This work presents a model of a previously proposed central pattern generator network and analyzes its capability to produce two distinct scratch rhythms from a single neuron pool, selected by different combinations of tonic drive parameters but with fixed strengths of connections within the network.


Nagy, James I.

"Connexin36 expression in major centers of the auditory system in the CNS of mouse and rat: Evidence for neurons forming purely electrical synapses and morphologically mixed synapses"
Neuroscience, 303:604

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Cx36 is widely expressed in the auditory system of rat and mouse. Neuronal gap junctions composed of Cx36 are abundant in the auditory system. Auditory nuclei contain nerve terminals forming morphologically mixed synapses. Nerve terminals associated with Cx36 in the cochlear nucleus are of primary afferent origin.


Aizenstein H., Orchard T., Ryan C., Saxton J., Fine D., Nunley K., Rosano C.

" Age of Childhood Onset in Type 1 Diabetes and Functional Brain Connectivity in Midlife"
Psychosomatic Medicine, 77:622

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Later age at diagnosis of childhood-onset diabetes associates with lower functional brain connectivity in middle age.


Ferrera, Vincent, P.

"A new paradigm and computational framework to estimate stop-signal reaction time distributions from the inhibition of complex motor sequences"
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 9:87:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The paper describes a new paradigm and the first non-parametric computational method to quantify trial-by-trial variability of inhibitory control with unprecedented accuracy. Results show many similarities and important differences of trial-by-trial variability between starting and stopping of motor sequences.

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