Papers for the month of September 2015

Kim, J.G., Aminoff, E.M., Kastner, S.

"A Neural Basis for Developmental Topographic Disorientation. . d"
J Neurosci., 35:12954

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Individuals with developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) have a life-long impairment in spatial navigation in the absence of brain damage, neurological conditions, or basic perceptual or memory deficits. Although progress has been made in identifying brain regions that subserve normal navigation, the neural basis of DTD is unknown. Using functional and structural neuroimaging and detailed statistical analyses, we investigated the brain regions typically involved in navigation and scene processing in a representative DTD individual, J.N. Although scene-selective regions were identified, closer scrutiny indicated that these areas, specifically the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), were functionally disrupted in J.N. This comprehensive examination of a representative DTD individual provides insight into the neural basis of DTD and the role of the RSC in navigation-related processing.

Yafit Gabay

"Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia."
Cortex, 73:131-143

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed.

Nicholls FJ, Ling W, Ferrauto G, Aime S

"Simultaneous MR imaging for tissue engineering in a rat model of stroke."
Scientific Reports, 5:14597

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In situ tissue engineering within a stroke cavity is gradually emerging as a novel therapeutic paradigm. Considering the varied lesion topology within each subject, the placement and distribution of cells within the lesion cavity is challenging. The use of multiple cell types to reconstruct damaged tissue illustrates the complexity of the process, but also highlights the challenges to provide a non-invasive assessment. The distribution of implanted cells within the lesion cavity and crucially the contribution of neural stem cells and endothelial cells to morphogenesis could be visualized simultaneously using two paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (paraCEST) agents. The development of sophisticated imaging methods is essential to guide delivery of the building blocks for in situ tissue engineering, but will also be essential to understand the dynamics of cellular interactions leading to the formation of de novo tissue.

Mayo JP, DiTomasso AR, Sommer MA

"Dynamics of visual receptive fields in the macaque frontal eye field"
Journal of Neurophysiology, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Here we employ a high-resolution probabilistic mapping approach to measure receptive fields in the frontal eye fields. We find that the visual responses are highly sensitive and precise, and this method forms a foundation for future studies of their spatiotemporal dynamics during eye movements.

Zhou DW, Mowrey D, Tang P

"Percolation Model of Sensory Transmission and Loss of Consciousness under General Anesthesia"
Physical Review Letters, 115:108103

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.


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