Papers for the month of October 2015

Ganel T., Shelef I., Hammer M. D., Avidan G., Behrmann M.

"Three-Dimensional Representations of Objects in Dorsal Cortex are Dissociable from Those in Ventral Cortex"
Cerebral Cortex, 0:1–13

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Anestablished conceptualization of visual cortical function is one inwhich ventral regionsmediate object perceptionwhile dorsal regions support spatial information processing and visually guided action. This division has been contested by evidence showing that dorsal regions are also engaged in the representation of object shape, even when actions are not required. The critical question is whether these dorsal, object-based representations are dissociable from ventral representations, and whether they play a functional role in object recognition.We examined the neural and behavioral profile of patientswith impairments in object recognition following ventral cortex damage. In a functional magnetic resonanace imaging experiment, the blood oxygen leveldependent response in the ventral, but not dorsal, cortex of the patients evinced less sensitivity to object 3D structure compared with that of healthy controls. Consistently, in psychophysics experiments, the patients exhibited significant impairments in object perception, but still revealed residual sensitivity to object-based structural information. Together, these findings suggest that, although in the intact system there is considerable crosstalk between dorsal and ventral cortices, object representations in dorsal cortex can be computed independently from those in ventral cortex. While dorsal representations alone are unable to support normal object perception, they can, nevertheless, support a coarse description of object structural information.

Lemaitre G., Navolio N., Zúñiga-Peñaranda N.

"Priming Gestures with Sounds"
PLoS ONE, 10(11):041791

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.http://Sounds that are heard before being instructed to make an action have an effect on the production of the action. The action is performed more rapidly if it produces a sound that matches the preceding priming sound, in comparison with an action that mismatches the priming sound. This is found even though the action to be made is not known at the time that the priming sound is played. This priming effect is equally large for both both (a) predictable sounds that have been consistently paired with actions, such as a scraping sound produced by scraping on object on a surface, and (b) arbitrary new sounds such as a beep of a particular pitch associated with lifting a key on the keyboard. The effect of the preceding priming sound is substantially erased if the actor does not hear any sounds after making an actions.

Zhou, P., Burton, S.D., Snyder, A.C., Smith, M.A., Urban, N.N.

" Establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony"
PLOS Computational Biology, 11:1004549

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Spike synchrony, which is widely reported in neural systems, may contribute to information transmission within and across brain regions via oscillatory activity. In this article we provide a method for establishing the statistical association of spike synchrony with an oscillatory local field potential, demonstrating the value of this technique by numerical simulation together with application to both in vitro and in vivo neural recordings.

Marek S., Larsen B., Tervo-Clemmens B., Chahal R.

"An Integrative Model of the Maturation of Cognitive Control"
Annual Review of Neuroscience, 38:151-170

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This review first summarizes previous literature concerning the development of cognitive control throughout adolescence. We then proposes a novel model for mechanisms underlying improvements in cognitive control abilities, concluding that adolescence in a particularly sensitive period for the development of cognitive control.

Cotel MC, Lenartowicz EM, Natesan S, Cooper JD, Williams SC, Kapur S, Vernon AC.

"Microglial activation in the rat brain following chronic antipsychotic treatment at clinically relevant doses."
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, Aug 17:doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.08.004

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Schizophrenia (SCZ). In addition, there is increasing evidence for a relationship between the dose and duration of antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment and reductions in grey matter volume. The potential contribution of microglia to these phenomena is however not yet defined. Adult rats were treated with a common vehicle, haloperidol (HAL, 2mg/kg/day) or olanzapine (OLZ, 10mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks via an osmotic mini-pump implanted subcutaneously. Microglial cells, identified by their Iba-1 immunoreactivity, were quantified in four regions of interest chosen based on previous neuroimaging data: the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, corpus striatum, and secondary somatosensory cortex. Those cells were also analysed according to their morphology, providing an index of their activation state. Chronic APD treatment resulted in increased density of total microglia in the hippocampus, striatum, and somatosensory cortex, but not in the ACC. Importantly, in all brain regions studied, both APD tested led to a dramatic shift towards an amoeboid, reactive, microglial morphology after chronic treatment compared to vehicle-treated controls. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that chronic APD treatment at clinically relevant doses leads to microglial proliferation and morphological changes indicative of activated microglia in the naïve rat brain. Although caution needs to be exerted when extrapolating results from animals to patients, these data suggest a potential contribution of antipsychotic medication to markers of brain inflammation. Further investigation of the links between antipsychotic treatment and the immune system are warranted

"Three-dimensional localization of cortical electrodes in deep brain stimulation surgery from intraoperative fluoroscopy"
Neuroimage, 125:515-521

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Electrophysiological recordings from subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes implanted temporarily during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries offer a unique opportunity to record cortical activity for research purposes. The optimal utilization of this important research method relies on accurate and robust localization of ECoG electrodes, and intraoperative fluoroscopy is often the only imaging modality available to visualize electrode locations.

Roberts K-L, Wechselberger M

"Averaging, Folded Singularities, and Torus Canards: Explaining Transitions between Bursting and Spiking in a Coupled Neuron Model"
SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems, 14:1808-1844

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We mathematically and computationally study transitions between bursting and tonic spiking activity patterns in a pair of model respiratory neurons coupled with synaptic excitation. An interesting bifurcation structure, including a new type of bifurcation, is revealed.

Yeh F., Badre D.

"Connectometry: A statistical approach harnessing the analytical potential of the local connectome"
NeuroImage, 125:162-171

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We introduce the idea of the local connectome as an analytical metric of fascicular integrity and show a novel approach to measuring variability in the structural connectome.

Dunovan K., Lynch B., Molesworth T.

"Competing basal-ganglia pathways determine the difference between stopping and deciding not to go."
eLife, 08723:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Using behavior analysis, drift diffusion modeling, & fMRI we show how the computational dynamics of reactive stopping can be differentiated from proactive decisions "not to go".


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