Papers for the month of February 2016

Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Robert Rosenbaum

"Inhibitory stabilization and visual coding in cortical circuits with multiple interneuron subtypes"
Journal of Neurophysiology, 115:1-10

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We analyze models of cortical circuits with multiple inhibitory cell types. We focus how inhibition controls network stabilization and the modulation of pyramidal cell tuning.

Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Robert Rosenbaum, Gabriel K Ocker, Kresimir Josic

"The mechanics of state-dependent neural correlations"
Nature Neuroscience, 19:383-393

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We review contemporary theories for how neural circuits modulate the trial to trial variability of groups of neurons.

Park, Y.

"Weakly Coupled Oscillators in a Slowly Varying World"
Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 40:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We apply the results of Kurebayashi et al 2013 to weakly coupled oscillators with a slowly varying parameter. We also present a more concise proof of their result.

Heeger, D. J., Heller, L. M., Gupta, A., Dinstein, I ., Minshew, N. J., & Behrmann, M.

"No difference in cross-modal attention or sensory discrimination thresholds in autism and matched controls"
Vision Research, 121:85-94

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Measured attention switching between visual and auditory modalities on a discrimination task. Individuals with autism performed as well as controls on the attention task, and showed similar visual and auditory discrimination thresholds.

Kozai TDY, Jaquins-Gerstl AS, Vazquez AL, Michael AC, Cui XT

"Dexamethasone retrodialysis attenuates microglial response to implanted probes in vivo"
Biomaterials, 87:157–169

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Herein, we report retrodialysis administration of dexamethasone while using in vivo two-photon microscopy to observe real-time microglial reaction to the implanted probe. Dexamethasone had a profound effect on the microglia morphology and reduced the acute activation of these cells.

Navolio, N., Lemaitre, G., Forget, A.,

"The egocentric nature of action-sound associations"
Frontiers in Psychology, Perception Science, 7:00231

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Although many of our actions produce predictable sounds, the frame of reference of these sound-action relationships is still unknown. For example, when an association is created between a keypress and a tone, it is unclear whether the frame of reference is egocentric (gesture-sound association) or exocentric (key-sound association). In our experiment, all participants performed the same keypress actions and hearing the same resulting sounds, but the task instructions either framed the action as either egocentric or exocentric. Participants in the egocentric condition, but not the exocentric condition, learned the gesture-sound association, as revealed by a priming paradigm. This finding suggests that action-sound associations are egocentric in nature.

Yimeng Zhang, Xiong Li, Jason M. Samonds, Tai Sing Lee

"Relating functional connectivity in V1 neural circuits and 3D natural scenes using Boltzmann machines"
Vision Research, 120:121-131

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Bayesian theory has provided a compelling conceptualization for perceptual inference in the brain. Central to Bayesian inference is the notion of statistical priors. To understand the neural mechanisms of Bayesian inference, we need to understand the neural representation of statistical regularities in the natural environment. In this paper, we investigated empirically how statistical regularities in natural 3D scenes are represented in the functional connectivity of disparity-tuned neurons in the primary visual cortex of primates. We applied a Boltzmann machine model to learn from 3D natural scenes, and found that the units in the model exhibited cooperative and competitive interactions, forming a “disparity association field”, analogous to the contour association field. The cooperative and competitive interactions in the disparity association field are consistent with constraints of computational models for stereo matching. In addition, we simulated neurophysiological experiments on the model, and found the results to be consistent with neurophysiological data in terms of the functional connectivity measurements between disparity-tuned neurons in the macaque primary visual cortex. These findings demonstrate that there is a relationship between the functional connectivity observed in the visual cortex and the statistics of natural scenes. They also suggest that the Boltzmann machine can be a viable model for conceptualizing computations in the visual cortex and, as such, can be used to predict neural circuits in the visual cortex from natural scene statistics.

Ballard I.C., Adcock R.A.

"Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex Predict Distinct Timescales of Activation in the Human Ventral Tegmental Area"
Cerebral Cortex, in-press:n/a

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Using human fMRI, we show that specific afferent systems predict distinct temporal components of midbrain VTA signaling. Prefrontal afferents predict transient, event-evoked VTA activation, while hippocampus predicted slow shifts in VTA baseline variability.

Large AM., Vogler NW., Mielo S.

"Balanced feedforward inhibition and dominant recurrent inhibition in olfactory cortex"
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 113:2276–2281

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Our main finding is that all excitatory cell classes in piriform cortex receive balanced feedforward excitation and inhibition while recurrent inhibition is much stronger than excitation. We also found that superficial L2 neurons receive more reliable feedforward input and less overall inhibition that deep L3 neurons. This suggests that L2 and L3 excitatory neurons are differentially involved in afferent versus recurrent network processing of odor information.

Tamar Degani, Anat Prior, Chelsea M. Eddington, Ana B. Arêas da Luz Fontes

"Determinants of translation ambiguity: A within and cross-language comparison"
Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, online:online

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew


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