Papers for the month of August 2016


Freud, E., Plaut, D.C., Behrmann, M,

"‘What’ Is Happening in the Dorsal Visual Pathway"
Trends in cognitive sciences, 1:1-12

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.A review paper that calls into question the binary distinction between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in the context of object perception. We suggest that the dorsal pathway generates dissociable representations that contribute to visual perception, and offer a new view of the functional organization of the dorsal pathway.


Ho LC, Sigal IA, Jan NJ, Yang X, Van der Merwe Y, Yu Y, Chau Y, Leung CK, Conner IP, Jin T, Wu EX, Kim SG, Wollstein G, Schuman JS

"Non-invasive MRI Assessments of Tissue Microstructures and Macromolecules in the Eye upon Biomechanical or Biochemical Modulation"
Scientific Reports, 6:32080

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We demonstrated the changing profiles of MRI contrast mechanisms resulting from biomechanical or biochemical modulation of the eye non-invasively. Multi-modal MRI may help evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms in CSS and the efficacy of corneoscleral treatments.


Ruff, D.

"Stimulus Dependence of Correlated Variability across Cortical Areas"
The Journal of Neuroscience, 36:7546

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We recorded simultaneously from neurons in primary visual cortex and the middle temporal area while rhesus monkeys viewed different visual stimuli in different attention conditions. We found that correlations between neurons in different areas depend on stimulus and attention conditions in very different ways than do correlations within an area. The observed pattern of cross-area correlations was predicted by a simple normalization model.


Aminoff E.M., Li Y., Ward M.J., Richardson R.M.

"Associative hallucinations result from stimulating left ventromedial temporal cortex."
Cortex, 83:139-144

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The ventromedial temporal cortex (VTC), including the medial fusiform, has been linked with object recognition, paired associate learning, contextual processing, and episodic memory, suggesting that this area may be critical in connecting visual processing, context, knowledge and experience. Using electrocorticography (ECoG) in a single human patient, medial regions of the left VTC were found to be sensitive to the contextual associations of objects. Electrical brain stimulation (EBS) of this part of the left VTC of the patient, functionally defined as sensitive to associative processing, caused memory related, associative visual phenomena potentially related to visual hallucinations.


Zimmerman, Eric

"The Nucleus Reuniens of the Midline Thalamus Gates Prefrontal-Hippocampal Modulation of Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neuron Activity"
The Journal of Neuroscience, 36:8977-8984

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is emerging as a key regulator of DA neuron activity, but the circuitry by which it exerts its influence remains poorly described. Here, we show that the nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus gates mPFC control of VTA DA neuron firing by the hippocampus. These data identify a unique role for this corticothalamic-hippocampal circuit, and suggest that dysfunction in these regions likely influences the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders.


Odic, D., Feigenson, L., Halberda, J.

"The precision of mapping between number words and the approximate number system predicts children’s formal math abilities."
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150:207-226

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children’s math abilities?


Braham, Emily

"Intergenerational associations in numerical approximation and mathematical abilities"
Developmental Science, Early View:1-11

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This study shows the first evidence of intergenerational transmission of an unlearned, nonverbal numerical competence from parents to children.


Crum WR, Danckaers F, Huysmans T, Cotel MC, Natesan S, Sijbers J, Williams SC, Kapur S, Vernon AC.

"Chronic exposure to haloperidol and olanzapine leads to common and divergent shape changes in the rat hippocampus in the absence of grey-matter volume loss."
Psychological Medicine, 12:1-13

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.One of the most consistently reported brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ) is decreased volume and shape deformation of the hippocampus. However, the potential contribution of chronic antipsychotic medication exposure to these phenomena remains unclear. We examined the effect of chronic exposure (8 weeks) to clinically relevant doses of either haloperidol (HAL) or olanzapine (OLZ) on adult rat hippocampal volume and shape using ex vivo structural MRI with the brain retained inside the cranium to prevent distortions due to dissection, followed by tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and elastic surface-based shape deformation analysis. The volume of the hippocampus was also measured post-mortem from brain tissue sections in each group.Chronic exposure to either HAL or OLZ leads to both common and divergent effects on rat hippocampal shape in the absence of volume change. The implications of these findings for the clinic are discussed.


Lohani, S., Poplawski, A.J., Kim, S-G.

"Unexpected global impact of VTA dopamine neuron activation as measured by opto-fMRI"
Molecular Psychiatry, na:na

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The paper demonstrates a causal relationship between activation of VTA dopamine neurons and global fMRI signals in the rat forebrain. The paper also highlights an unexpected but predominant fMRI activation in the dorsal striatum upon VTA dopaminergic activation.


Large, A., Kunz, N., Mielo, S.

"Inhibition by somatostatin interneurons in olfactory cortex."
Frontiers in Neural Circuits, doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00062:2016.00062

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In this study we investigate the distributions and inhibitory connectivity of somatostatin interneurons in the piriform cortex. We find that somatostatin interneurons broadly inhibit multiple classes of interneurons as well as both dendrites and somas of pyramidal cells.


Li, Y., Grabell, A.S, Wakschlag, L.S., Huppert, T.J.

"The neural substrates of cognitive flexibility are related to individual differences in preschool irritability: A fNIRS investigation"
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab. In this study of preschool children,results suggest the entwined nature of cognitive and emotional neurodevelopment, finding that children high in irritable temperament have increased prefrontal activation during a cognitive flexibility task (as measured by fNIRS).


Gurnsey K., Salisbury D., Sweet R.A.

"Contextual processing in unpredictable auditory environments: the limited resource model of auditory refractoriness in the rhesus"
Journal of Neurophysiology, ePub ahead of print:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.A fresh look at the functional properties of a putative neural correlate of echoic memory.

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