Papers for the month of October 2016

Kancherla S., Kohler W.J., Van der Merwe Y.

"In Vivo Evaluation of the Visual Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Diffusion Tensor MRI and Contrast Enhanced MRI"
PLOS ONE, 11(10):e0165169

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Our results suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to early injury in the optic nerve when no substantial change in retinal integrity or anterograde transport along the visual pathways was observed in MRI using contrast agent enhancement. DTI may be a useful tool for detecting and monitoring early pathophysiological changes in the visual system of experimental diabetes non-invasively.

Rubin, Jonathan; Smith, Matthew, Rosenbaum, Robert; Kohn, Adam

"The spatial structure of correlated neuronal variability"
Nature Neuroscience, 19:4433

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We extended the theory of networks with a balance of excitation and inhibition to include spatially dependent coupling between neurons. We predict that when the spatial spread of input correlations is narrower than the spatial footprint of recurrent connections then spatially correlated activity will ensue. This prediction is validated with population recordings in visual area V1.

Flesher S., Collinger J., Foldes S., Weiss J., Downey J., Tyler-Kabara E., Bensmaia S., Schwartz A., Boninger M., Gaunt R.

"Intracortical microstimulation of human somatosensory cortex"
Science Translational Medicine, 8:80

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Touch is essential for hand use, yet brain-controlled prosthetic limbs have not been endowed with this critical sense.In this study, microelectrode arrays were implanted into the primary somatosensory cortex of a person with spinal cord injury and, by delivering current through the electrodes, generated sensations of touch that were perceived as coming from his own paralyzed hand. These sensations often felt like pressure, could be graded in intensity, and were stable for months, suggesting that this approach could be used to convey information about contact location and pressure necessary for prosthetic hands to interact with objects.

Jin, T, Nicholls, F.J., Crum, W.R., Ghuman, H., Badylak, S.F.

"Diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (diaCEST) affords magnetic resonance imaging of extracellular matrix hydrogel implantation in a rat model of stroke"
Biomaterials, 113:176-190

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Extracellular matrix (ECM) is widely used as an inductive biological scaffold to repair soft tissue after injury by promoting functional site-appropriate remodeling of the implanted material. However, there is a lack of non-invasive analysis methods to monitor the remodeling characteristics of the ECM material after implantation and its biodegradation over time. We describe the use of diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging to monitor the distribution of an ECM hydrogel after intracerebral implantation into a stroke cavity. The distribution of ECM hydrogel within the stroke cavity is feasible, but further advances are required to warrant a selective long-term monitoring in the context of biodegradation.

Kirschmann, E.K., Pollock, M.W., Nagarajan, V.

"Effects of Adolescent Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Rats on Addiction-Related Behaviors and Working Memory"
Neuropsychopharmacology, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 5, 2016:1-12

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We are the first to describe an animal model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration. Additionally, our finding that adult working memory is enhanced by adolescent cannabinoid self-administration and subsequent abstinence is surprising, and suggests that there is still much to be examined about the effects of behaviorally-relevant exposure levels of cannabinoids on the developing brain.


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