Papers for the month of June 2017

Barstow, B., Fazio, L., Schunn, C.

"Experimental Evidence for Diagramming Benefits in Science Writing"
Instructional Science, 45:1-20

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Arguing for the need for a scientific research study (i.e. writing an introduction to a research paper) poses significant challenges for students. When faced with these challenges, students often generate overly safe replications (i.e. fail to find and include opposition to their hypothesis) or in contrast include no strong support for their hypothesis (i.e. relevant, valid evidence).

Wang, J., Cherkassky, V.

"Predicting the brain activation pattern associated with the propositional content of a sentence: modeling neural representations of events and states"
Human Brain Mapping, unspecified:unspecified

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We present a predictive computational theory of the neural representations of individual events and states as they are described in 240 sentences. Regression models were trained to determine the mapping between 42 neurally plausible semantic features (NPSFs) and thematic roles of the concepts of a proposition and the fMRI activation patterns of various cortical regions that process different types of information. Given a semantic characterization of the content of a sentence that is new to the model, the model can reliably predict the resulting neural signature, or, given an observed neural signature of a new sentence, the model can predict its semantic content.

Clause A, Lauer AM,

"Mice Lacking the Alpha9 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Exhibit Deficits in Frequency Difference Limens and Sound Localization."
Front Cell Neurosci, 11:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits. In α9KO mice, the developmental refinement of inhibitory afferents to the lateral superior olive is disturbed, resulting in decreased tonotopic organization of this sound localization nucleus. In this study, we used behavioral tests to investigate whether the circuit anomalies in α9KO mice correlate with sound localization or sound frequency processing. Using a conditioned lick suppression task to measure sound localization, we found that three out of four α9KO mice showed impaired minimum audible angles. Using a prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response paradigm, we found that the ability of α9KO mice to detect sound frequency changes was impaired, whereas their ability to detect sound intensity changes was not. These results demonstrate that cholinergic, nicotinic α9 subunit mediated transmission in the developing cochlear plays an important role in the maturation of hearing.

Larsen, B., Verstynen, T., Yeh, F.

"Developmental Changes in the Integration of Affective and Cognitive Corticostriatal Pathways are Associated with Reward-Driven Behavior"
Cerebral Cortex, Not yet assigned:1-12

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The relative influence of affective and cognitive processes on behavior is increasingly understood to transform through development, from adolescence into adulthood, but the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this change are not well understood. We analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in 115 10- to 28-year-old participants to identify convergent corticostriatal projections from cortical systems involved in affect and cognitive control and determined the age-related differences in their relative structural integrity. Results indicate that the relative integrity of affective projections, in relation to projections from cognitive control systems, decreases with age and is positively associated with reward-driven task performance.

Tina T. Liu

"Functional outcomes following lesions in visual cortex: Implications for plasticity of high-level vision"
Neuropsychologia, N/A:N/A

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.• A review on plasticity of high-level vision in 46 patients following lesions early in life • No straightforward relationship between the etiology, time of onset, lesion site and recovery • Early-onset lesions are associated with a general visual recognition impairment • Persistent low-level visual deficits tend to impede recovery of high-level vision • An intermediate view on the plasticity continuum is proposed

William Hayward

"The concurrent encoding of viewpoint-invariant and viewpoint-dependent information in visual object recognition"
Visual Cognition, 0:1-22

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We hypothesize that object representations encode information supporting both viewpoint-invariant and viewpoint-dependent recognition whereby the nature of the information expressed during recognition depends upon context. We establish that viewpoint-invariant and viewpoint-dependent information is encoded concurrently, even if one information type is not immediately relevant to encoding context. Our results suggest that object representations are neither viewpoint-dependent nor viewpoint-invariant, but rather encode multiple kinds of information that are deployed in a flexible manner appropriate to context and task.

Gates K, Kraynak TE, Thase ME, Siegle GJ

"Data-Driven Subgroups in Depression Derived from Directed Functional Connectivity Paths at Rest"
Neuropsychopharmacology, In press:In press

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Data-driven parsing of neural connectivity (quantified using Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation; GIMME) revealed two subgroups among 80 depressed patients completing resting state fMRI. These connectivity-based subgroups tracked with clinical and demographic patient features that are relevant to depression prognosis.

Zhang, Q., Borst, J.P., Kass, R.E.,& Anderson, J.R.

"Inter-Subject Alignment of MEG Datasets in a Common Representational Space"
Human Brain Mapping , 000:000

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Aligning subjects is vital to group analysis in neuroimaging studies, this work provides a method to align MEG subjects that bypasses source localization.

Crowley, K., Dorph, R.,

"Crumpled Molecules and Edible Plastic: Science Learning Activation in Out-of-School Time"
Afterschool Matters, 25:22-28

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The Coalition for Science After School highlights the dual nature of outcomes for science learning during out-of-school time (OST): Learning experiences should not only be positive in the moment, but also position youth for future success.

"Loudness- and time-dependence of auditory evoked potentials is blunted by the NMDA channel blocker MK-801"
Psychiatry Research, 256:202-206

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit blunted auditory evoked potentials for loud tones and for tones presented after long periods of silence. Here we show that both phenotypes can be mimicked in the rhesus monkey by systemic NMDA receptor blockade, suggesting that their alteration in schizophrenia may reflect a shared glutamatergic pathology.

Xiao, X.

"Understanding and Detecting Divided Attention in Mobile MOOC Learning"
Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2017:2411-2415

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In this paper, we investigate the impact of divided attention (DA) on both the learning process and learning outcomes in the context of mobile MOOC learning. We propose OneMind, a system and algorithm for detecting divided attention on unmodified mobile phones via implicit, camera-based heart rate tracking.


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