Papers for the month of October 2017

Boris Gutkin, Gregory Dumont

"Macroscopic phase-resetting curves for spiking neural networks"
Physical Review E, 96.4:042311

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We show that it is possible to describe the phase resetting curve for a population rhythm by analyzing a highly reduced mean field model

Chanet, S., Miller, C. J., Vaishnav, E. D., Davidson, L. A., & Martin, A. C

" Actomyosin meshwork mechanosensing enables tissue shape to orient cell force"
Nature Communications, 8:15014

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.A two dimensional agent based model for actin organization was developed and tested experimentally

Navlakha, Saket and Bar-Joseph, Ziv

"Network Design and the Brain"
Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience, S1364-6613(17)30200-0.:online

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Neural circuits have evolved to accommodate similar information processing challenges as those faced by engineered systems. We compare neural versus engineering strategies for constructing networks. By thinking algorithmically about the goals, constraints, and optimization principles used by neural circuits, we can develop brain-derived strategies for enhancing network design, while also stimulating experimental hypotheses about circuit development and function.

Collins, E., Dundas, E., Gabay, Y., Plaut, D., Behrmann, M.

"Hemispheric Organization in Disorders of Development"
Visual Cognition, 0:1-14

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.A recent theoretical account posits that, during the acquisition of word recognition in childhood, the pressure to couple visual and language representations in the left hemisphere (LH) results in competition with the LH representation of faces, which consequently become largely, albeit not exclusively, lateralized to the right hemisphere (RH). We explore predictions from this hypothesis using a hemifield behavioural paradigm with words and faces as stimuli, with concurrent event-related potential (ERP) measurement, in a group of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD) or with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) and matched control participants. Behaviourally, the DD group exhibited clear deficits in both word and face processing relative to controls, while the CP group showed a specific deficit in face processing only. This pattern was mirrored in the ERP data too. The DD group evinced neither the normal ERP pattern of RH dominance for faces nor the LH dominance for words. In contrast, the CP group showed the typical ERP superiority for words in the LH but did not show the typical RH superiority for faces. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the typical hemispheric organization for words can develop in the absence of typical hemispheric organization for faces but not vice versa, supporting the account of interactive perceptual development.

Haigh S.M. , Murphy T.K., Leiter-Mcbeth J., Salisbury D.F.

"Reduced Auditory Segmentation Potentials in First-Episode Schizophrenia"
Schizophrenia Research, In Press:In Press

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Auditory object segmentation, the grouping of sequential acoustic elements into temporally-distinct auditory objects, can be assessed with electroencephalography through measurement of the auditory segmentation potential (ASP). This study supports the validity of the ASP for measurement of auditory object segmentation and suggests that the ASP may be useful as an early index of schizophrenia-related cingulate cortex dysfunction.

Steinman, S., Kusmierski, S.

"Difficulty Concentrating in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Evaluation of Incremental Utility and Relationship to Worry"
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, online first:online first

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.The present study evaluated the incremental utility of subjective experiences of difficulty concentrating and its relationship to worry and other symptoms in 175 adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Subjective difficulty concentrating incrementally predicted GAD, anxiety, and depression severity even after other GAD symptoms were controlled. Consistent with theoretical models of GAD that propose a direct relationship between worry and cognitive impairment, difficulty concentrating mediated the relationship between trait worry and clinical severity.

Harms MB, Shannon Bowen KE, & Pollak SD

"Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress"
Developmental Science, n/a:n/a

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. As predicted, adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals.

Frederic Dick, Matthew Lehet, Martina F. Callaghan, Timothy Keller, Martin I. Sereno

"Extensive Tonotopic Mapping Across Auditory Cortex Is Recapitulated By Spectrally-Directed Attention, And Systematically Related To Cortical Myeloarchitecture"
Journal of Neuroscience, xx:1436-17

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Auditory selective attention is vital in natural soundscapes. But, it is unclear how attentional focus on the primary dimension of auditory representation - acoustic frequency - might modulate basic auditory functional topography during active listening. Using a novel functional paradigm combined with quantitative MRI, we establish that human frequency-band-selective attention drives activation in both myeloarchitectonically-estimated auditory core, and across the majority of tonotopically-mapped non-primary auditory cortex.

Arai, Ken

"Inferring oscillatory modulation in neural spike trains"
PLoS Computational Biology, 13:e1005596

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper presents a statistical method for solving the challenging problem of detecting oscillations in neural spike trains.

Ghuman H, Gerwig M, Nicholls FJ, Liu JR, Donnelly J, Badylak SF

"Long-term retention of ECM hydrogel after implantation into a sub-acute stroke cavity reduces lesion volume."
Acta Biomaterialia, 63:50-63

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In situ gelation of ECM is essential for its retention within a tissue cavity. The brain is a unique environment with restricted access that necessitates image-guided delivery through a thin needle to access tissue cavities caused by stroke, as well as other conditions, such as traumatic brain injury or glioma resection. Knowledge about a brain tissue response to implanted hydrogels remains limited, especially in terms of long-term effects and potential impact on behavioral function. We here address the long-term retention of hydrogel within the brain environment, its impact on behavioral function, as well as its ability to reduce further tissue deformation caused by stroke. This study highlights considerable differences in the brain’s long-term response to an ECM hydrogel compared to peripheral soft tissue. It underlines the importance of understanding the effect of the structural presence of a hydrogel within a cavity upon host brain tissue and behavioral function. As demonstrated herein, ECM hydrogel can fill a cavity long-term to reduce further progression of the cavity, while potentially serving as a reservoir for local drug or cell delivery.

Bertholomey, Megan

"Gonadal hormones affect alcohol drinking but not cue+yohimibine-induced alcohol seeking in male and female rats"
Physiology and Behavior, 10262017:1

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Alcoholism is a serious disorder that is increasingly becoming problematic for women. We have found that female rats consume more alcohol than males and exhibit greater relapse-like behavior in response to alcohol-paired cues and a pharmacological stressor. In this paper we report that gonadal hormones only partially regulate this sex difference, with gonadectomy affecting levels of drinking, but having no effect on the relapse-like response. Thus, this sex difference is likely mediated by sex-specific hormonal or genetic effects on brain development.


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