Papers for the month of February 2018

Urban-Ciecko J, Jouhanneau JS, Myal SE, Poulet JFA, Barth AL

"Precisely Timed Nicotinic Activation Drives SST Inhibition in Neocortical Circuits"
Neuron, 97:611-625

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Cortical pyramidal-to-SST excitatory synapses are common but very weak. We found that endogenous acetylcholine release strengthens these synapses in mouse S1 by activating presynaptic nicotinic receptors and protein kinase A. These effects were target cell-specific, with pyramidal-to-pyramidal and pyramidal-to-PV synapses unaffected. Thus, endogenous acetylcholine release can selectively increase excitation onto SST neurons.

Sarah M. Haigh, Jennifer A. Walsh, Carla A. Mazefsky, Nancy J. Minshew & Shaun M. Eack

"Processing Speed is Impaired in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Relates to Social Communication Abilities"
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48:1-10

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.We found significant slowing in measures of processing speed in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to IQ-matched healthy volunteers. Slower processing speeds correlated with poorer communication skills, suggesting that processing speed is a potential mechanism that could unify the diverse profile of behaviors associated with ASD.

Zhou, P., Resendez, S.L., Rodriguez-Romaguera, J., Stuber, G.D., Jimenez, J.C., Hen, R., Keirbek, M.A., Neufeld, S.Q., Sabatini, B.L., Kass, R.E., and Paninski, L.

"Efficient and accurate extraction of in vivo calcium signals from microendoscopic video data, "
eLife, 7:28728

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.http://In vivo calcium imaging through microendoscopic lenses enables imaging of previously inaccessible neuronal populations deep within the brains of freely moving animals. However, it is computationally challenging to extract single-neuronal activity from microendoscopic data, because of the very large background fluctuations and high spatial overlaps intrinsic to this recording modality. Here, we describe a new constrained matrix factorization approach to accurately separate the background and then demix and denoise the neuronal signals of interest.

Wellman SM, Kozai TDY.

"In vivo spatiotemporal dynamics of NG2 glia activity caused by neural electrode implantation"
Biomaterials, 164:121-133

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.http://This study characterized the early spatiotemporal dynamics of OPCs involved in the inflammatory response induced by microelectrode insertion. Detailed spatiotemporal characterization of glial behavior under pathological conditions may allow identification of alternative intervention targets for mitigating the formation of a glial scar and subsequent neurodegeneration that debilitates chronic neural interfaces.

Berquin Feese, Diego Pafundo, Meredith Schmehl

"Binocular deprivation induces both age-dependent and age-independent forms of plasticity in parvalbumin inhibitory neuron visual response properties."
Journal of Neurophysiology, 119:738-751

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in sensory cortex are generally considered to be mediators of experience-dependent plasticity, and their plasticity is restricted to the critical period. However, in regions outside of sensory cortex, accumulating evidence demonstrates that PV neurons are plastic in adults, raising the possibility that aspects of PV response properties may be plastic throughout life. Here we identify a feature of in-vivo PV neuron activity that remains plastic past the critical period.

Snyder, A., Issar, D.

"What does scalp electroencephalogram coherence tell us about long-range cortical networks?"
European Journal of Neuroscience, 0:0

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Both coherence between scalp EEG electrodes and coherence between LFPs recorded intracranially in different brain areas have been linked to cognitive process and neurological disorders, but how are these two measurements of inter-area connectivity related to each other? This study directly tackles this important question by simultaneously recording at both measurement scales in Macaque monkeys performing demanding visual tasks.


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