85-408/709: Visual Cognition
Fall 2013, Tue/Thu 1:30-2:50pm, Baker 336B
Recognizing an object, face or word is a complex process which is mastered with little effort by humans. This course adopts a three-pronged approach, drawing on psychological, neural and computational models to explore a range of topics including early vision, visual attention, face recognition, reading, object recognition, and visual imagery. The course will take a seminar format.
The course is divided into five sections: 1) General background; 2) Object recognition; 3) Face recognition; 4) Word recognition; and 5) Attention and spatial cognition. The first section will consist of standard lectures, but each of the remaining sections will involve in-class discussion of one or two assigned articles, led by a student (or occasionally by a guest lecturer). In addition to reading the articles and participating in class discussions, students will be expected to write four short essays (one for each of Sections 2-5; the essay for Section 3 will be done in class, the others will be done out of class and should be about 4 pages/1200 words) and a final paper (of about 10 pages/3000 words). The essays will involve synthesizing the assigned readings from the relevant section in order to address a specific question or issues, and the final paper will be on a topic of the student's choice (in consultation with the instructor).
Course goals and evaluation
Below are the broad goals of the course and how each is assessed (listed in brackets).
- Extend breadth of knowledge of cognitive psychology, including theoretical perspectives, research findings, and applications [assessed through writing assignments and in-class discussions]
- Foster familiarity with diverse experimental paradigms used in psychology [assessed through writing assignments and in-class discussions].
- Engender the ability to read and critique psychological articles [assessed through writing assignments and in-class discussions].
- Improve skill in oral and written presentation [through writing assignments and article presentation].
- Foster critical thinking and creativity [assessed through writing assignments, in-class discussions, and formulation of final paper].
The grading in the class will be divided up as follows:
|Essays on Sections 2-5
|| 15% each
The out-of-class essays should be handed in as physical print-outs and are due at the beginning of class on the date listed in the Syllabus. The final paper should be submitted as a pdf file via email. The 10% for class participation will be based on the quality of the in-class article presentation and on contributions to class discussions throughout the semester. Late penalties: Essays handed in late will be penalized by 5% for each day late, up to a maximum penalty of 25%. Late essays may be submitted as a pdf file by email.
There is no required text for the course. All assigned readings are available as downloadable pdf files from links in the Syllabus below. The syllabus also contains some optional readings (in parentheses and preceded by optional:) that are made available in case you want to learn about a particular topic in more depth. (Students who are presenting a given topic should at least familiarize themselves with any optional readings for that topic.) Other course materials (e.g., descriptions of essay/paper assignments) will be made available via links within Blackboard.
Section 1: General background
Aug 27 (Tue): Basic organization of the visual system (slides)
Aug 29 (Thu): Methods in cognitive neuroscience (slides)
Sep 3 (Tue): Intermediate-level vision and perceptual organization (slides)
- Gazzaniga, M.S. and Heatherton, T.F. (2006). Psychological science (Chapter 5: Sensation, perception, and attention, pp. 182-202).New York: W.H. Norton. [A reasonable, briefer overview with some nice demonstrations]
- (optional: Palmer, S.E. (1999). Vision science: Photons to phenomenology (Chapter 6: Organizing objects and scenes).Cambridge, MA: Bradford books. [A much more thorough treatement of the relevant phenomena])
- (optional: Wilkin, A. and Tenenbaum, J. (1983). What is perceptual organization for? In A. Bundy (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 92-95), Karlsruhe, West Germany. Berlin: William Kaufmann.)
Sep 5 (Thu): NO CLASS (Rosh Hashana)
Section 2: Object recognition
Sep 10 (Tue): Behavioral studies/overview of object recognition (slides)
Sep 12 (Thu): Neuropsychological studies of object recognition (visual agnosia) (slides)
- Humphreys, G.W. and Riddoch, M.J. (2006). Features, objects, action: The cognitive neuropsychology of visual object processing, 1984-2004. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 23, 156-183.
- (optional: Behrmann, M., Winocur, G. and Moscovitz, M. (1992). Dissociation between mental imagery and object recognition in a brain-damaged patient. Nature, 359, 636-637.)
Sep 17 (Tue): Neurophysiology of object recognition [led by C. Olson]
- Kiani, R., Esteky, H., Mirpour, K., and Tanaka, K. (2007). Object category structure in response patterns of neuronal population in monkey inferior temporal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 4296-4309.
- (optional: Sripati, A.P., and Olson, C.R. (2010). Global image dissimilarity in macaque inferotemporal cortex predicts human visual search efficiency. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 1258-1269.)
Sep 19 (Thu): NO CLASS (Sukkot)
Sep 24 (Tue): Functional neuroimaging of object recognition (slides)
- Grill-Spector, K., and Malach, R. (2004). The human visual cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 649-677.
- (optional: Ishai, A., Ungerleider, L.G., Martin, A., Schouten, J.L., and Haxby, J.V. (1999). Distributed representation of objects in the human ventral visual pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 96, 9379-9384.)
Sep 26 (Thu): Computational approaches to object recognition (slides)
- Riesenhuber, M. and Poggio, T. (1999). Hierarchical models of object recognition in cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 1019-1025.
- (optional: DiCarlo, J.J. and Cox, D.D. (2007). Untangling invariant object recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 333-341.)
- (optional: Peissig, J.J. and Tarr, M.J. (2007). Visual object recognition: Do we know more now than we did 20 years ago? Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 75-96.)
Section 3: Face recognition
Oct 1 (Tue): Behavioral studies/overview of face recognition (slides)
[ESSAY ON SECTION 2 DUE]
- Tanaka, J.W., and Gordon, I. (2011). Features, configuration, and holistic face processing. In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M.H. Johnson, and J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception(pp. 177-194). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- (optional: Liu, C.H., and Chaudhuri, A. (2003). What determines whether faces are special? Visual Cognition, 10, 385-408.)
- (optional: McKone, E., and Robbins, R. (2011). Are faces special? In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M.H. Johnson, and J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception (pp. 149-176). Oxford: Oxford University Press.)
Oct 3 (Thu): Functional neuroimaging of face recognition (slides) [led by C. Burlingham]
- Haxby, J.V., Gobbini, I. Furey, M.L., Ishai, A. Schouten, J.L., and Pietrini, P. (2001). Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science, 293, 2425-2430.
- (optional: Kanwisher, N. McDermott, J., and Chun, M.M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 4302-4311.)
- (optional: Gauthier, I., Tarr, M.J., Anderson, A.W., Skudlarski, P., and Gore, J.C. (1999). Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects.Nature Neuroscience, 2, 568-573.)
Oct 8 (Tue): Neuropsychological studies of face recognition (prosopagnosia) (slides) [led by M. Behrmann]
- Behrmann, M., Avidan, G., Thomas, C. and Nishimura, M. (2011). Impairments in face perception. In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M.H. Johnson, and J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception (pp. 799-820). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oct 10 (Thu): Neurophysiology of face recognition (slides)
- Tsao, D.Y., and Livingstone, M.S. (2008). Mechanisms of face perception. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 31, 411-437.
- (optional: Freiwald, W.A., Tsao, D.Y., and Livingstone, M.S. (2009). A face feature space in the macaque temporal lobe. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1187-1196.)
- (optional: Leopold, D.A., Bondar, I.V., and Giese, M.A. (2006). Norm-based face encoding by single neurons in the monkey inferotemporal cortex. Nature, 442, 572-575.)
Oct 15 (Tue): Computational approaches to face recognition (slides)
- Jiang, X., Rosen, E., Zeffiro, T., VanMeter, J., Blanz, V., and Riesenhuber, M. (2006). Evaluation of a shape-based model of human face discrimination using fMRI and behavioral techniques. Neuron, 50, 159-172.
- (optional: O'Toole, A. (2011). Cognitive and computational approaches to face recognition. In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M.H. Johnson, and J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception (pp. 15-30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.)
Oct 17 (Thu): IN-CLASS ESSAY ON SECTION 3
Section 4: Word recognition
Oct 22 (Tue): Behavioral studies/overview of word recognition (slides)
- Rumelhart, D.E., and McClelland, J.L. (1981). Interactive processing through spreading activiation. In A.M. Lesgold and C.A. Perfetti (Eds.), Interactive processes in reading (pp. 37-60). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- (optional: Changizi, M.A., Zhang, Q., Ye, H., and Shimojo, S. (2006). The structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes. The American Naturalist, 167, E117-E139.)
- (optional: Gomez, P., Ratcliff, R., and Perea, M. (2008). The overlap model: A model of letter position coding. Psychological Review, 115, 577-601.)
- (optional: Rayner, K., White, S.J., Johnson, R.L., and Liversedge, S.P. (2006). Raeding wrods with jubmled lettres: There is a cost. Psychological Science, 17, 192-193.)
Oct 24 (Thu): Neuropsychological studies of word recognition (slides)
- Bub, D. (2003). Alexia and related reading disorders. Neurological Clinics (North America), 21, 549568.
- (optional: Behrmann, M., Plaut, D.C., and Nelson, J. (1998). A literature review and new data supporting an interactive account of letter-by-letter reading. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 15, 7-51.)
Oct 29 (Tue): Functional neuroimaging of word recognition (slides) [led by W. Chang]
- Dehaene, S. and Cohen, L. (2011). The unique role of the visual word form area in reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 254-262.
- Price, C.J. and Devlin, J.T. (2011). The interactive account of ventral occipitotemporal contributions to reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 246-253.
- (optional: Vinckier, F., Dehaene, S., Jobert, A., Dubus, J.P., Sigman, M., Cohen, L. (2007). Hierarchical coding of letter strings in the ventral stream: Dissecting the inner organization of the visual word-form system. Neuron, 55, 143156.)
- (optional: Glezer, L.S., Jiang, X. and Riesenhuber, M. (2009). Evidence for highly selective neuronal tuning to whole words in the "visual word form area". Neuron, 62, 199-204.)
Oct 31 (Thu): Computational approaches to word recognition (slides) [led by D. Plaut]
- Plaut, D.C. and Behrmann, M. (2011). Complementary neural representations for faces and words: A computational exploration. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 28, 251-275.
- (optional: Behrmann, M., and Plaut, D.C. (2013). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219.)
- (optional: Plaut, D.C. (2006). Connectionist approaches to reading. In M. Snowling, C. Hulme, and M. Seidenberg (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook. Oxford: Blackwell.)
Section 5: Attention and spatial cognition
Nov 5 (Tue): Behavioral studies/overview of attention (slides)
[ESSAY ON SECTION 4 DUE]
Nov 7 (Thu): Space- vs. object-based attention (slides)
- Egly, R., Driver, J. and Rafal, R.D. (1994). Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: Evidence from normal and parietal lesion subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 161-177.
- Shomstein, S. and Behrmann, M. (2006). Cortical systems mediating visual attention to both objects and spatial locations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 103, 11387-11392.
Nov 12 (Tue): Neuropsychological studies (hemispatial neglect) (slides) [led by A. Millette]
Nov 14 (Thu): Perception for action ("where" vs. "how") (slides)
- Goodale, M.A. and Humphrey, G.K. (1998). The objects of action and perception. Cognition, 67, 181-207.
- Himmelbach, M., Boehme, R. and Karnath, H.-O. (2012). 20 years later: A second look on DFs motor behaviour. Neuropsychologia, 50, 139-144.
- (optional: Goodale, M.A., Milner, A.D., Jakobson, L.S. and Carey, D.P. (1991). A neurological dissociation between perceiving objects and grasping them. Nature, 349, 154-156.)
- (optional: Milner, A.D. and Goodale, M.A. (2008). Two visual systems re-viewed. Neuropsychologia, 46, 774-785.)
Nov 19 (Tue): Functional neuroimaging of attention (slides)
[led by A. Marcus]
Nov 21 (Thu): Neurophysiology of attention (slides) [led by R. Asbel]
Nov 22 (Fri): [EMAIL FINAL PAPER TOPIC]
Nov 26 (Tue): Computational approaches to attention (slides)
[ESSAY ON SECTION 5 DUE]
Nov 28 (Thu): NO CLASS (Thanksgiving)
Dec 3 (Tue): Eye movements and reaching [led by W. Wang]
- Awh, E., Armstrong, K.M. and Moore, T. (2006). Visual and oculomotor selection: Links, causes and implications for spatial attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 124-130.
- Rossetti, Y., Pisella, L. and Vighetto, A. (2003). Optic ataxia revisited: Visually guided action versus immediate visuomotor control. Experimenal Brain Research, 153, 171-179.
Dec 5 (Thu): Frontal contributions, open issues
- Bar, M., Kassam, K.S., Ghuman, A.S., Boshyan, J., Schmid, A.M., Dale, A.M., Hamalainen, M.S., Marinkovic, K., Schacter, D.L., Rosen, B.R., Halgren, E. (2006). Top-down facilitation of visual recognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 103, 449-454.
- O'Reilly, R.C. (2010). The What and How of prefrontal cortical organization. Trends in Neurosciences, 33, 355-361.
Dec 6 (Fri) 5pm: FINAL PAPER DUE