Papers for the month of November 2019

Jiang, Haiteng

"Brain-heart interactions underlying traditional Tibetan Buddhist meditation"
Cerebral Cortex, 29:bhz095

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In a large cohort of long-term Tibetan Buddhist monk meditation practitioners, we found distinct transient modulations of the neural response to heartbeats in the default mode network, along with large-scale network reconfigurations in the gamma and theta bands of EEG activity induced by meditation. Additionally, temporal-frontal network connectivity in the EEG theta band was negatively correlated with the duration of meditation experience, and gamma oscillations were uniquely, directionally coupled to theta oscillations during meditation.

Talor I. M.,Patel, N., Freedman N., Castagnola, E.

"Direct in Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Resting Dopamine Using Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Carbon Nanotube Functionalized Microelectrodes"
Analytical Chemistry, 91:12917

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Decades of research has focused on improving in vivo detection capabilities for subsecond phasic DA, but the accurate detection of absolute resting DA levels in real time has proven challenging. We report that using a combination of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based nanocomposite coating that can be applied to any microelectrodes and a novel square wave voltammetry protocol, we can measure resting DA concentration in the brain with high sensitivity and spatial resolution.

Zhang, W.H., Wu, S., Doiron, B., Lee, T.S.

"A Normative Theory for Causal Inference and Bayes Factor Computation in Neural Circuits"
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. 2019, 0:3799-3808

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This study provides a normative theory for how Bayesian causal inference can be implemented in neural circuits. In both cognitive processes such as causal reasoning and perceptual inference such as cue integration, the nervous systems need to choose different models representing the underlying causal structures when making inferences on external stimuli. In multisensory processing, for example, the nervous system has to choose whether to integrate or segregate inputs from different sensory modalities to infer the sensory stimuli, based on whether the inputs are from the same or different sources. Making this choice is a model selection problem requiring the computation of Bayes factor, the ratio of likelihoods between the integration and the segregation models. In this paper, we consider the causal inference in multisensory processing and propose a novel generative model based on neural population code that takes into account both stimulus feature and stimulus reliability in the inference. In the case of circular variables such as heading direction, our normative theory yields an analytical solution for computing the Bayes factor, with a clear geometric interpretation, which can be implemented by simple additive mechanisms with neural population code. Numerical simulation shows that the tunings of the neurons computing Bayes factor are consistent with the "opposite neurons" discovered in dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas for visual-vestibular processing. This study illuminates a potential neural mechanism for causal inference in the brain.

Hannikainen Ivar R., Rose David, Stich Stephen, Olivola Christopher Y., Sousa Paulo, Cova Florian, Buchtel Emma E., Alai Mario, Angelucci Adriano, Berniûnas Renatas, Chatterjee Amita, Cheon Hyundeuk, Cho In-Rae, Cohnitz Daniel, Dranseika Vilius, Eraña Lagos Ángeles, Ghadakpour Laleh, Grinberg Maurice, Hashimoto Takaaki, Horowitz Amir, Hristova Evgeniya, Jraissati Yasmina, Kadreva Veselina, Karasawa Kaori, Kim Hackjin, Kim Yeonjeong, Lee Minwoo, Mauro Carlos, Mizumoto Masaharu, Moruzzi Sebastiano, Ornelas Jorge, Osimani Barbara, Romero Carlos, Rosas López Alejandro, Sangoi Massimo, Sereni Andrea, Songhorian Sarah, Struchiner Noel, Tripodi Vera, Usui Naoki, Vázquez del Mercado Alejandro, Vosgerichian Hrag A., Zhang Xueyi, Zhu Jing

"For Whom Does Determinism Undermine Moral Responsibility? Surveying the Conditions for Free Will Across Cultures "
Frontiers in Psychology, 10:2428

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.This paper compares judgments about free will and responsibility in twenty countries and find systematic East-West differences

"Bioscaffold-induced brain tissue regeneration"
Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13:1156

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.Brain tissue lost after a stroke is not regenerated, although a repair response associated with neurogenesis does occur. The putative mechanisms of bioscaffold degradation and its pivotal role to permit invasion of neural cells are reviewed and discussed in comparison to peripheral wound healing.

Svetlana Pinet

"Electrophysiological Correlates of Monitoring in Typing with and without Visual Feedback"
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, online November 8:1-18

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.New theories of monitoring in language production, regardless of their mechanistic differences, all posit monitoring mechanisms that share general computational principles with action monitoring. This perspective, if accurate, would predict that many electrophysiological signatures of performance monitoring should be recoverable from language production tasks. In this study, we examined both error-related and feedback-related EEG indices of performance monitoring in the context of a typing-to-dictation task. To disentangle the contribution of the external from internal monitoring processes, we created a condition where participants immediately saw the word they typed (the immediate-feedback condition) versus one in which displaying the word was delayed until the end of the trial (the delayed-feedback condition). The removal of immediate visual feedback prompted a stronger reliance on internal monitoring processes, which resulted in lower correction rates and a clear error-related negativity. Compatible with domain-general monitoring views, an error positivity was only recovered under conditions where errors were detected or had a high likelihood of being detected. Examination of the feedback-related indices (feedback-related negativity and frontocentral positivity) revealed a two-stage process of integration of internal and external information. The recovery of a full range of well-established EEG indices of action monitoring in a language production task strongly endorses domain-general views of monitoring. Such indices, in turn, are helpful in understanding how information from different monitoring channels are combined.

Sombric, C., Gonzalez-Rubio, M.

"Split-Belt walking induces changes in active, but not passive, perception of step length"
Scientific Reports, 9:16442

Mouse over here for a brief summary or click to open article in a new tab.In this paper, we found that locomotor adaptation influenced active, but not passive, limb position perception. We found that changes in perception were due to changes in the perceived position of the trailing leg and that these perceptual changes were sensitive to step length size.


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