Kello, C. T., and Plaut, D. C. (2004). A neural network model of the articulatory-acoustic forward mapping trained on recordings of articulatory parameters. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116, 2354-2364..

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Abstract: Three neural network models were trained on the forward mapping from articulatory positions to acoustic outputs for a single speaker of the Edinburgh multi-channel articulatory speech database. The model parameters (i.e., connection weights) were learned via the backpropagation of error signals generated by the difference between acoustic outputs of the models, and their acoustic targets. Efficacy of the trained models was assessed by subjecting the models acoustic outputs to speech intelligibility tests. The results of these tests showed that enough phonetic information was captured by the models to support rates of word identification as high as 84%, approaching an identification rate of 92% for the actual target stimuli. These forward models could serve as one component of a data-driven articulatory synthesizer. The models also provide the first step toward building a model of spoken word acquisition and phonological development trained on real speech.

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