Kello, C. T., Plaut, D. C., and MacWhinney, B. (2000). The task-dependence of staged versus cascaded processing: An empirical and computational study of Stroop interference on speech production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 340-360.

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Abstract: We investigated the on-line relationship between overt articulation and the central processes of speech production. In two experiments manipulating the timing of Stroop interference in color naming, we found that naming behavior can shift between exhibiting a staged or cascaded mode of processing depending on task demands: an effect of Stroop interference on naming durations arose only when there was increased pressure for speeded responding. In a simple connectionist model applied to color naming, we accounted for the current results by manipulating a single parameter modulating the rate of information accrual within the network. We discuss the implications of our empirical results and theoretical account for issues in speech production and motor control.

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